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Phenolphthalein is an indicator. Choose the correct option:- 1. Soluble bases. A Chemical used as a food preservative. Chemical name of Chile Salt Petre. IV Define the following:- 1. Acid Rain 2. Neutralisation Reaction 3. Non Metal Oxides are called Acidic. Metal Oxides are Basic 3. Sour things are not kept in metal pots 4. Metal Oxides such as MgO are used for making refractory bricks. VIII Answer in 40 words:- 1. What are general properties of bases? What are general properties of acids? How is this gas formed?
IX Answer in words:- 1. Describe an activity to show the effect of acid on carbonates and hydrogen carbonates? What is acid rain? How is it formed? Mention three bad effects of acid rain. X Write one use of the following:- 1. Sulphuric acid. Citric acid 3. Sodium Carbonate 4. Potassium Nitrate 5. Choose the correct option Multiple Choice Questions : i Which of the following is a proper fraction? Simplify: i ii 4. Multiply: i ii iii iv 5. Find: i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix A sugar bag contains 30 kg of sugar.
After consuming of it, how much sugar is left in the bag? If milk is available at Rs per litre, find the cost of litres of milk. Find the area of a rectangular park which is m long and m broad. Divide: i by 4 ii by 6 iii 9 by iv 10 by v vi vii viii A wire of length m is cut into 10 pieces of equal length. Find the length of each piece. In a charity show Rs were collected by selling some tickets. If the price of each ticket was Rs, how many tickets were sold? Find the product: i ii iii iv v vi vii viii If the cost of a book is Rs One metre of cloth costs Rs What is the cost of metres of cloth?
Divide: i by 10 ii by 15 iii by 18 iv by 12 v by 9. If each bag weighs Each side of a polygon is 2. The perimeter of the polygon is How many sides does the polygon have? The product of two decimals is If one of them is In the repeating decimal , which digit is in the th place to right of the decimal point? A sports team received Rs 9, 58, as prize money. This money was split among 29 players and the coach. If the players got one share each and the coach got shares, how much would one share be worth?
Perform the following operations on Integers :- 1. In a class test containing 15 questions, 4 marks are given for every correct answer and -2 marks for every incorrect answer. What is her total score? What will be her score? In a class test containing 10 questions, 5 marks are awarded for every correct answer and - 2 marks are awarded for every incorrect answer and 0 for not attempting any of the questions.
What is his score? What is her score? How many incorrect questions did they attempt? How many questions had she attempted incorrectly? An elevator descends into the mine 6 min per minute. If it descends from 10m above the ground, how long will it take to reach m? Suppose we represent the distance above the ground, what will be its positive integer and that below the ground by a negative integer, then answer the following: - i An elevator descends into a mine shaft at the rate of 5 m per minute.
What will be its position after 1 hour? What will be the room temperature 10 hours after the process begins? The temperature at the noon was 10 C above zero. If it 2 C per hour until midnight, at what rate would the temperature will be 8 C below zero? What would be the temperature at midnight?
A cement company earns a profit of Rs 8 per bag of white cement sold and a loss of Rs 5 per bag of grey cement sold. What is its profit or loss? Q 21 A shopkeeper earns a profit of Re 1 by selling 1 pen and incurs a loss of 40 paise per pencil while selling pencils of her old stock. In this period, she sold 45 pens. How many pencils did she sell in this period? If she sold 70 pens, how many pencils were sold? Fill in the blanks a.
After the decline of Harsha s empire the,a powerful Rajput dynasty rose to prominence in the North India. The Rashtrakutas were overthrown in the tenth century by the. Those who received land grants became the king s. Temple authorities and Brahmans received grants of lands f.
The great scholar came to India during Mahmud s reign. Rajendra Chola proclaimed himself after he conquered the river Ganga. A large town was treated as a separate kurram called a. Name the following. This was the land held by non-brahaman individuals b.
This place was situated in the heart of the Ganga plain. He was the ruler who performed the ritual hiranyagarbha. This was the capital of the Rashtrakutas. Four Rajput clans. Three important dynasties of Peninsular India. The dynasties that fought for control over Kanuaj. Land granted to Jain Institution was called by this name. This was the capital of Cholas. Answer the following questions. Who were samantas? What were their roles? What led to the decline of the Gurjara Pratiharas?
Why did Mahmud of Gazani attack temple towns in India? Who were needed to pay the taxes? How did temples help in Cholas administration? How did land grants improve agriculture? Write about the village administration of Cholas. Draw a flowchart of the administrative divisions of Cholas. A Fill in the blanks. The state which has one house is called. Bill can become a law after the approval of.
The Vidhan Sabha is the house of the state legislature. The Vidhan Parishad cannot be dissolved. The members of Vidhan Parishad are called as. The role of a legislature is to. The term of Vidhan Sabha is and Vidhan Parishad is. He appoints the governor. The state civil service is headed by him. He administers a union territory. This is the name given to a department which is assigned to each cabinet minister.
He is the official head of a state. This commission selects all the civil servants of a state. What does a bicameral state legislature in India consist of? What does the executive branch of a state government consist of? The executive is answerable to the legislature. Justify the statement. How are the MLCs of a state elected? Write the steps of a bill to become a law.
What are the powers of a governor? How is the chief minister of a state appointed? What are the main functions of the chief minister? How can a governor be removed? III Fill in the blanks: i Things pass from a region of concentration to a region of concentration. Give reasons for the following: i Sweating helps to keep us cool.
Choose the correct options from the following: i Food is carried from the leaves by pipes formed by a Xylem b Phloem c Sap d Osmosis ii The contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a Stethoscope b Heartbeat c Pulse d Blood pressure iii Filters of kidney are called a Neuron b capillaries c nephron d funnel VI.
Draw well labelled neat diagrams of the following. Chlorophyll-Pitcher 2. Parasite- Lichen 3. Symbiosis-Dodder 4. Insectivorous Starch Q. Mastication 2. Ingestion 3. Assimilation 4. Saprotrophs 5. Teeth In One Jaw 2. Alimentary Canal 3. Villi 4. Insectivorous Plant Pitcher Plant Q.
Iodine shows blue black colour with.. Mode of nutrition in fungi is The ultimate source of energy on earth is. Write down the complete equation of photosynthesis. What is common between the following pairs: a Bread mould and mushroom b Venus flytrap and pitcher plant.
What is the role of saliva? What are steps involved in holozoic mode of nutrition. In Monarchy, the monarch shares powers with the people. The organ of the government that makes law is called c. The lower house of the state legislature is known as d. In India the voting age is f. The heads the civil services.
Our own country is a republic. Franchise i Governor b. Coalition government ii Legislature having two houses c. A unicameral legislature iii the right to vote to elect representatives d. Presides over the vidhan sabha iv Legislature having one house e. A bicameral legislature v speaker f.
Official head of state executive vi a government formed by two or more parties. What is a political party? What did the Civil Rights Act of forbid? Which house can pass a vote of no confidence against the ministers of the state executive? Give full form of MLCs. Who does the day to day administrative work in the departments of the state government? Who was Rosaparks? Why do we remember her? Discretionary powers b. Bill c. Dictatorship d. Ruling party e.
Universal Adult Franchise f. Ruling Party g. Opposition Party Q. Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad b. Unicameral and Bicameral Legislature c. Powers of Governor and Chief Minister d. The molten rock found below the earth surface is called rock. The process by which gas changes into liquid is called c. Rain caused by the rising of air heated on contact with hot ground is rainfall. The weight of the atmosphere pushing down on a unit area on the earth surface is called e.
The undesirable change in the air is called f. The physical and biological conditions in which organisms lives is. The blanket of air that surrounds the earth is known as h. Mass of ocean water moving in a particular direction is called i. The wind that blows from permanent high pressure belt to permanent low pressure belt are called Q.
The state of the atmosphere at particular place at a particular time is weather where as climate is the b. Evaporation is the process by which c. Humidity is the amount of water vapour d. The remains of within layers of rocks are called fossils. The falling of condensed is called precipitation. Sedimentary a.
Igneous b. Sea breeze c. Metamorphic d. Land breeze e. The alternate rise and fall in the level of sea water c. An instrument for measuring rainfall d. It is an instrument used to measure atmosphere pressure e. The lowest and densest layer of the atmosphere is known as the f. Bhakti b. Sufism c. Brahmadeya d. Devadana Q. Two European countries that began direct overseas trade with India in the medieval period. Two regional languages that came into wide use in medieval India.
Two Rajput clans that established kingdoms on the ruins of the Pratihara kingdom. The dynasties that fought for control over Kanauj in the early medieval period. Two important dynasties of peninsular India in the early medieval period. The Islamic scholar visited India during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni. The school of Islamic law become popular in India. Vetti was i an administrative unit ii a title given to a chola official iii a tax paid in cash iv a tax paid in the form of forced labour.
Who brought Islam to India? What is Islam? When and where did it arise? What was the condition of the lowest castes? What led to the decline of Gurjara-Pratiharas? Court scholars composed prashastis of their rulers? It was necessary for some medieval rulers to proclaim their Kshatriya caste status? The Indian kingdoms of early medieval period rose and fell frequently. The need for keeping records was strongly felt during the medieval period.
Masjid b. Chihalgani c. Din Ilahi d. Charbagh e. Watan Jagirs f. Pietra-dura g. Mihrab h. Baoli i. Suyurghal Q. True arch and corbel arch b. North and South Indian style of temples Q. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq shifted his capital to Devagiri.
Jahangir had Guru Arjun executed. The loss of Qandahar was a setback for the Mughal Empire. Medieval Hindu rulers built temples. Builders of Bengal and Kashmir used bricks and wood instead of stone. Most of the early medieval temples of south India are built in the style. The is Babur s record of his own experiences. Author, musician and artist were among the nine gems of Abbar s court. Balban introduced the Persian custom of in his court. The five dynasties of the Delhi sultanate in choronological order.
Three different kinds of structures built in medieval India to demonstrate power. An irrigation dam built by the ancient Cholas in the Kaveri delta. The vice-regent under Ala-ud-din Khalji. Mention three problems faced by the sultans of Delhi. What caused revolts during Aurangzeb s reign? What were the two main styles of temple architecture in medieval India? Give one example of each. How did Iltutmish save India from Mongol invasion? Officials called maintained law and order in towns.
Indo-Islamic architecture avoided the use of i Calligraphy ii human and animal form iii floral and geometric pattern iv all of these d. The Delhi Sultanate lasted from i to ii to iii to iv to e. What is 1. Zaminbos 2. Barids Chalisha Kharaj. St battle of Tarain 2. Chapter State Government Executive i The state which has one house is called. Prepare the frequency table for the following data: 5,2,1,3,4,4,5,6,2,2,4,5,5,6,2,2,4,5,5,1. Find the mean of first five natural numbers.
Find the mean of first five prime numbers. The ages in years of 50 players of a school are given below: Age yr No. The weights of 10 students kg are: 40,52,34,47,31,35,48,41,44,38, Find the median weight. Calculate the median for the following data: Marks No. Find the median of first 10 even numbers. The ages in years of 11 cricket players are given below: 28,34,32,41,36,32,32,38,32,40, Find the mode of ages. Daily wages of 45 workers in a factory are given below: Daily wages in Rs.
The following table shows the weight of 12 players: Weight in kg No. Using empirical formula, calculate its mode. The following table shows the no. Draw a bar graph to represent. Year No. A coin is tossed times and head is obtained 59 times. On tossing a coin at random, find the probability of getting : a A head. A dice is thrown times and the out comes are noted as shown below: Outcome Freqency When a dice is thrown at random, find the probability of getting: a 5 b 3 c 4 d 6.
Q seeds were selected at random from each of 5 bags of seeds and were kept under standardised conditions favourable to germination. After 20 days the no. The distance covered by 10 athletes in 1 minute in a sprint race of m is : ,,,,,,,,, The following table show the no. Given below is the marks M. If angle between PQ and QR is 39 0,find the value of x and y 2 Out of a pair of complementary angles, one is 2 3 find the angles.
Answer the following a Describe the path taken by inhaled air from the nostrils to the lungs. How does an insect take in air and how does the air reach different part of the body? Give one word for the following. Fill in the blanks.
State true or false. Match the following. Give reasons i Evaporation of sweat causes cooling. Answer in not more than 20 words. What is a unit of measurement? How are stopwatches different from ordinary watches? What property of a pendulum made it suitable to b used in the manufacture of clocks? What is the time period of a pendulum? What is oscillation? When a body is said to be in uniform motion? Correct the following. Our photo and remote sensing program, updated for this edition, exceeds items, integrated throughout the text.
New images and photos for the 20 chapter openers, and redesigned schematics and photos for the 4 part openers. Learning Catalytics, a bring your own device student engagement, assessment, and classroom intelligence system, integrated with MasteringGeography. Continuing in the Fourth Canadian Edition Twenty-two Focus Studies, with either updated or new content, explore relevant applied topics in greater depth and are a popular feature of the Geosystems texts.
In this edition, these features are grouped by topic into five categories: Pollution, Climate Change, Natural Hazards, Sustainable Resources, and Environmental Restoration. These original, unique essays, updated for the Fourth Canadian Edition, immediately engage readers into the chapter with relevant, real-world examples of physical geography.
New Geosystems Now topics in this edition include Canada s December claim to extend its boundary in the Arctic to the edge of the continental shelf Chapter 1 , getting water from the air in arid climates Chapter 7 , a large-scale look at Vancouver Island s climate Chapter 10 , and the effects of proposed dams on rivers in China Chapter Many of these features emphasize linkages across chapters and Earth systems, exemplifying the Geosystems approach.
GeoReports continue to describe timely and relevant events or facts related to the discussion in the chapter, provide student action items, and offer new sources of information. The 84 GeoReports in the Fourth Canadian Edition, placed along the bottom of pages, are updated, with many new to this edition.
Example topics include: Did light refraction sink the Titanic? Chapter 4 Yukon and Saskatchewan hold records for extreme temperatures Chapter 5 Stormy seas and maritime tragedy Chapter 8 Water use in Canada Chapter 9 Satellite GRACE enables groundwater measurements Chapter 9 Tropical climate zones advance to higher latitudes Chapter 10 Sinkhole collapse in Ottawa caused by human activities Chapter 14 Surprise waves flood a cruise ship Chapter 16 Greenland ice sheet melting Chapter 17 Overgrazing effects on Argentina s grasslands Chapter 18 Critical Thinking exercises are integrated throughout the chapters.
These carefully crafted action items bridge students to the next level of learning, placing students in charge of further inquiry. The Geosystems Connection feature at the end of each chapter provides a preview bridge between chapters, reinforcing connections between chapter topics. At the end of each chapter is A Quantitative Solution. This feature leads students through a solution to a problem, using a quantitative approach.
Formerly called Applied Physical Geography, several of these were expanded or updated for this edition, and a new one was added Map Scales, in Chapter 1. Key Learning Concepts appear at the outset of each chapter, many rewritten for clarity.
Each chapter concludes with Key Learning Concepts Review, which summarizes the chapter using the opening objectives. Geosystems continues to embed Internet URLs within the text. More than appear in this edition. These allow students to pursue topics of interest to greater depth, or to obtain the latest information about weather and climate, tectonic events, floods, and the myriad other subjects covered in the book.
The MasteringGeography online homework and tutoring system delivers self-paced tutorials that provide individualized coaching, focus on course objectives, and are responsive to each student s progress. Instructors can assign activities built around Geoscience Animations, Encounter Google Earth Explorations, MapMaster interactive maps, Thinking Spatially and Data Analysis activities, new GeoTutors on the most challenging topics in physical geography, end-of- chapter questions, and more.
Students also have access to a text-specific Study Area with study resources, including an optional Pearson etext version of Geosystems, Geoscience Animations, MapMaster interactive maps, new videos, Satellite Loops, Author Notebooks, additional content to support materials for the text, photo galleries, In the News RSS feeds, web links, career links, physical geography case studies, flashcard glossary, quizzes, and more all at Author Acknowledgments The authors and publishers wish to thank all reviewers who have participated in reading material at various stages during development of Geosystems for previous editions, most recently those who reviewed manuscript for the Fourth Canadian Edition: Norm Catto, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Michele Wiens, Simon Fraser University; James Voogt, University of Western University; Nancy McKeown, MacEwan University; Trudy Kavanagh, University of British Columbia; and Denis Lacelle, University of Ottawa.
And we extend continued thanks to reviewers of the previous three editions. Peter Johnson, Jr. I appreciate our Canadian staff at Pearson and the skilled Canadian educators that coauthored this edition, Mary-Lou Byrne and Philip Giles, who I am honoured to call my colleagues. The Canadian environment is under accelerating climate-change stress that exceeds that occurring in the lower latitudes.
For this reason, Geosystems, Fourth Canadian Edition, takes on an important role to educate and, hopefully, provoke actions toward a slower rate of climate change and a more sustainable future. Thanks and admiration go to the many authors and scientists who published research that enriches this work. Thanks for all the dialogue received from students and teachers shared with me through s from across the globe. I offer a special thanks to Ginger Birkeland, Ph. The challenge of such a text project is truly met by her strengths and talents.
Her contribution to the success of Geosystems is obvious. From Ginger: Many thanks to my husband, Karl Birkeland, for his ongoing patience, support, and inspiration throughout the many hours of work on this book. I also thank my daughters, Erika and Kelsey, who endured my absence throughout a ski season and a rafting season as I sat at my desk. My gratitude also goes to William Graf, my academic advisor from so many years ago, for always exemplifying the highest standard of research and writing, and for helping transform my love of rivers into a love of science and all things geography.
Special thanks to Robert Christopherson, who took a leap of faith to bring me on this Geosystems journey. It is a privilege to work with him. From Mary-Louise: The incredible journey continues and once again I need to thank so many for their help. I owe my greatest thanks to my immediate family my husband, Alain Pinard, and our children, Madeleine and Julianne, who continue to be curious about the world around them.
To my extended family I am indebted to your honest comments and criticisms. Geosystems is an amazing textbook, and I am so pleased to participate in its development. I thank all my colleagues in the geographic community in Canada who, by comment, communication, or review, helped to shape the contents of this text. I am forever indebted to Brian McCann for teaching me to look at physical processes from many perspectives and to integrate these perspectives in order to form an explanation.
He is sadly missed. To all the students with whom I had contact in 24 years of teaching at Wilfrid Laurier University, your enthusiasm and curiosity keep me focused on the goal of explaining planet Earth. I have had the pleasure of communicating with several current students from across the country that have had positive and constructive criticism about the book. I took your comments seriously and have addressed them where appropriate.
It is amazing to hear from you and I encourage you to continue to communicate. To future students, our planet is in your hands: Care for it. From Philip: I am very pleased and grateful to continue as part of the author team on Geosystems, Fourth Canadian Edition. For many years I admired the choice of content and writing style, as well as the presentation quality, in Geosystems.
When selected to join the team for the Third Canadian Edition, it was an honour to know that I would be contributing to the preparation of this textbook which will play an important role for so many students in learning about physical geography. I knew quite early that I wanted to make physical geography my career, so to reach this stage and be playing this role as an author on a successful and influential textbook is extremely satisfying.
As an undergraduate and graduate student, one is influenced by many people. All of my course instructors and advisors helped me to learn and develop academically, and collectively they deserve recognition. In particular, like Mary-Lou, I also had the pleasure and.
Mary- Lou completed her Ph. To Yvonne, my parents, and my colleagues in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at Saint Mary s University, thank you all for your support over the years. Whether you are taking this course as a requirement for your major or as an elective, I hope this textbook will help you find pleasure as you develop a better understanding of the physical environment.
Robert, Ginger, Mary-Lou, and I each have a deep passion for this subject and one of the goals of this book is to inspire the same passion in you, our readers. From all of us: Physical geography teaches us a holistic view of the intricate supporting web that is Earth s environment and our place in it. Dramatic global change is underway in human Earth relations as we alter physical, chemical, and biological systems. Our attention to climate change science and applied topics is in response to the impacts we are experiencing and the future we are shaping.
All things considered, this is a critical time for you to be enrolled in a physical geography course! The best to you in your studies and carpe diem! Robert W. Christopherson P. Box Lincoln, California Ginger H. Student study area with Geoscience Animations, Map- Master interactive maps, new videos, Satellite Loops, Author Notebooks, additional content to support materials for the text, photo galleries, In the News RSS feeds, web links, career links, physical geography case studies, a glossary, self-quizzing, an optional Pearson etext and more.
Pearson etext gives students access to the text wherever they have access to the Internet. Users can create notes, highlight text, and click hyperlinked words to view definitions. The Pearson etext also allows for quick navigation and provides full-text search. We also offer prebuilt assignments for instructors to make it easy to assign this powerful tutorial and homework system. A wide variety of published papers based on NSF-sponsored research and tests illustrate the benefits of the Mastering program.
Results documented in scientifically valid efficacy papers are available at CourseSmart CourseSmart goes beyond traditional expectations providing instant, online access to the textbooks and course materials you need at a lower cost for students. And even as students save money, you can save time and hassle with a digital etextbook that allows you to search for the most relevant content at the very moment you need it.
Whether it s evaluating textbooks or creating lecture notes to help students with difficult concepts, CourseSmart can make life a little easier. This three-dvd set helps students visualize how human decisions and behaviour have affected the environment and how individuals are taking steps toward recovery. With topics ranging from the poor xxii land management promoting the devastation of river systems in Central America to the struggles for electricity in China and Africa, these 13 videos from Television for the Environment s global Earth Report series recognize the efforts of individuals around the world to unite and protect the planet.
Created through a unique collaboration among Pearson s leading geoscience authors, this resource offers over animations covering the most difficult-to-visualize topics in physical geology, physical geography, oceanography, meteorology, and earth science.
This book examines career opportunities for geographers and geospatial professionals in the business, government, nonprofit, and education sectors. A diverse group of academic and industry professionals shares insights on career planning, networking, transitioning between employment sectors, and balancing work and home life. The book illustrates the value of geographic expertise and technologies through engaging profiles and case studies of geographers at work.
This two-part resource provides a starting point for becoming an effective geography teacher from the very first day of class. Part One addresses nuts-and-bolts teaching issues. Part Two explores being an effective teacher in the field, supporting critical thinking with GIS and mapping technologies, engaging learners in large geography classes, and promoting awareness of international perspectives and geographic issues.
Drawing on several years of research, this set of essays is designed to help graduate students and early career faculty start their careers in geography and related social and environmental sciences. Aspiring Academics stresses the interdependence of teaching, research, and service and the importance of achieving a healthy balance of professional and personal life while doing faculty work.
Each chapter provides accessible, forward-looking advice on topics that often cause the most stress in the first years of a college or university appointment. A variety of exercises provides flexibility in lab assignments. Each exercise includes key terms and learning concepts linked to Geosystems. Supported by a website with media resources needed for exercises, as well as a downloadable Solutions Manual for teachers. The website for lab manual provides online worksheets as well as KMZ files for all of the Google Earth exercises found in the lab manual.
Goode s World Atlas, 22nd Edition. Goode s World Atlas has been the world s premiere educational atlas since and for good reason. It features over pages of maps, from definitive physical and political maps to important thematic maps that illustrate the spatial aspects of many important topics. The 22nd Edition includes pages of digitally produced reference maps, as well as thematic maps on global climate change, sea-level rise, CO 2 emissions, polar ice fluctuations, deforestation, extreme weather events, infectious diseases, water resources, and energy production.
Pearson s Encounter Series provides rich, interactive explorations of geoscience concepts through Google Earth activities, covering a range of topics in regional, human, and physical geography. For those who do not use MasteringGeography, all chapter explorations are available in print workbooks, as well as in online quizzes at accommodating different classroom needs.
Each exploration consists of a worksheet, online quizzes whose results can be ed to teachers, and a corresponding Google Earth KMZ file. Encounter Physical Geography by Jess C. Appropriate for any science or social science course in need of a basic understanding of the reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC. These periodic reports evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans.
But the sheer volume of scientific data remains inscrutable to the general public, particularly to those who still question the validity of climate change. In just over pages, this practical text presents and expands upon the essential findings in a visually stunning and undeniably powerful way to the lay reader. Scientific findings that provide validity to the implications of climate change are presented in clear-cut graphic elements, striking images, and understandable analogies.
For Teachers Learning Catalytics is a bring your own device student engagement, assessment, and classroom intelligence system. With Learning Catalytics, you can: Assess students in real time, using open-ended tasks to probe student understanding. Understand immediately where students are and adjust your lecture accordingly. Improve your students critical-thinking skills. Access rich analytics to understand student performance.
Add your own questions to make Learning Catalytics fit your course exactly. Manage student interactions with intelligent grouping and timing. Learning Catalytics is a technology that has grown out of twenty years of cutting-edge research, innovation, and implementation of interactive teaching and peer instruction.
Available integrated with MasteringGeography. Includes lecture outlines and key terms, additional source materials, teaching tips, and a complete annotation of chapter review questions. Pearson s computerized test banks allow instructors to filter and select questions to create quizzes, tests, or homework. Instructors can revise questions or add their own, and may be able to choose print or online options.
These questions are also available in Microsoft Word format. Lecture Outline PowerPoint Presentations by Khaled Hamdan, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, outlines the concepts of each chapter with embedded art and can be customized to fit teachers lecture requirements. These instructor resources are also available online via the Instructor Resources section of MasteringGeography and Pearson Custom Library For enrollments of at least 25 students, you can create your own textbook by choosing the chapters that best suit your own course needs.
To begin building your custom text, visit You may also work with a dedicated Pearson custom editor to create your ideal text publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your local Pearson representative to get started.
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Your local Pearson Education sales representative can provide you with more details on this service program. Offering current examples and modern science, Geosystems combines a structured learning path, student-friendly writing, current applications, outstanding visuals, and a strong multimedia program for a truly unique physical geography experience.. Chapter Climate Change. Incorporating the latest climate change science and data, this new chapter covers paleoclimatology and mechanisms for past climatic change, climate feedbacks and the global carbon budget, the evidence and causes of present climate change, climate forecasts and models, and actions that we can take to moderate Earth s changing climate.
Discuss several natural factors that influence Earth s climate, and describe climate feedbacks, using examples. List the key lines of evidence for present global climate change, and summarize the scientific evidence for anthropogenic forcing of climate. Discuss climate models, and summarize several climate projections. Describe several mitigation measures to slow rates of climate change. This view of Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Fjord in northwest Greenland in April shows Arctic sea ice as air and ocean temperature warm.
Thinner seasonal ice appears clearer in the foreground; thicker multiyear ice appears whiter in the distance. Much of the Arctic Ocean is now dominated by seasonal ice, which melts rapidly every summer. Ice melt in the polar regions and at high altitudes is an important indicator of Earth s changing climate, the subject of this chapter. With Arctic air temperatures currently rising at a rate more than two times that of the midlatitudes, ground temperatures are increasing, causing permafrost thaw.
This results in changes to land surfaces, primarily sinking and slumping, that damage buildings, forests, and coastlines. Permafrost thaw also leads to the decay of soil material, a process that releases vast amounts of carbon, in the form of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 and methane CH 4 , into the atmosphere Figure GN Carbon in Permafrost Soils Permafrost is, by definition, soil and sediment that have remained frozen for two or more consecutive years.
The active layer is the seasonally frozen ground on top of subsurface permafrost. This thin layer of soil and sediment thaws every summer, providing substrate for seasonal grasses and other plants that absorb CO 2 from Figure GN In winter, the active layer freezes, trapping plant and animal material before it can decompose completely. Over hundreds of thousands of years, this carbon-rich material has become incorporated into permafrost and now makes up roughly half of all the organic matter stored in Earth s soils twice the amount of carbon that is stored in the atmosphere.
In terms of real numbers, the latest estimate of the amount of carbon stored in Arctic permafrost soils is gigatonnes or billion tonnes. A Positive Feedback Loop As summers become warmer in the Arctic, heat radiating through the ground thaws the permafrost layers. Microbial activity in these layers increases, enhancing the breakdown of organic matter. As this occurs, bacteria and other organisms release CO 2 into the atmosphere in a process known as microbial respiration.
In anaerobic oxygen-free environments, such as lakes and wetlands, the process releases methane. Studies show that thousands of methane seeps can develop under a single lake, a huge amount when multiplied by hundreds of thousands of lakes across the northern latitudes Figure GN Carbon dioxide and methane are major greenhouse gases, which absorb outgoing longwave radiation and radiate it back toward Earth, enhancing the greenhouse effect and leading to atmospheric warming.
Methane is especially important because, although its relative percentage is small in the atmosphere, it is over 20 times more effective than CO 2 at trapping atmospheric heat. Thus, a positive feedback loop forms: As temperatures rise, permafrost thaws, causing a release of CO 2 and CH 4 into the atmosphere, which causes more warming, leading to more permafrost thaw. When the supporting structure provided by the ice is removed, land surfaces collapse and slump.
Subsurface soils are then exposed to sunlight, which speeds up microbial processes, and to water erosion, which moves organic carbon into streams and lakes, where it is mobilized into the atmosphere. Research suggests that this process may release bursts of CO 2 and CH 4 into the atmosphere, in contrast to the slower top-down melting of permafrost. Permafrost soils are now warming at a rate faster than Arctic air temperatures, releasing vast amounts of ancient carbon into the atmosphere.
Scientists are actively researching the locations and amounts of vulnerable permafrost, the current and projected rates of thaw, and the potential impacts to the permafrost carbon positive feedback. The thawing Arctic is one of many immediate concerns we discuss in this chapter regarding the causes and impacts of changing climate on Earth systems.
The Human Denominator summarizes Human-Earth relationships, interactions, challenges for the 21st century through dynamic visuals, including maps, photos, graphs, and diagrams. Hydrothermal features and travertine deposits are common in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, which sits above a stationary hot spot in Earth s crust. Hydrothermal activity produces hot springs, fumaroles steam vents , mud pots, and geysers.
Grand Prismatic Spring, pictured here, is the largest hot spring in the United States, and third largest in the world. The rifts mark the divergent boundary separating the North American and Eurasian plates. This steep-sided isolated sandstone feature, about 3. Movement in Earth s crust results from these internal dynamics.
Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that describes the lithosphere in terms of continent-sized migrating pieces of crust that can collide with other plates. Earth s present surface map is the result of these vast forces and motions. In Chapter 13, we focus more closely on the surface expressions of all this energy and matter in motion: the stress and strain of folding, faulting, and deformation; the building of mountains; and the sometimes dramatic activity of earthquakes and volcanoes.
Geosystems in Action present highly-visual presentations of core physical processes and critical chapter concepts. These features include links to mobile-ready media and MasteringGeography, as well as GeoQuizzes and integrated active learning tasks that ask students to analyze, explain, infer, or predict based on the information presented. Meanders form because the portion of the stream with maximum velocity shifts from one side of the stream to the other as the stream bends, thus affecting erosion and deposition along the stream s banks GIA Through these scour-and-fill processes, a meandering stream moves position laterally across its valley and creates a distinctive landscape GIA Areas of maximum velocity Maximum velocity Point bar deposition: On a bend s inner side, stream velocity decreases, leading to deposition of sediment and forming a point bar.
Pool deep The bypassed bends. Narrow areas between meanders are necks. When discharge increases, the stream may scour through the neck, portion of the stream may become a meander scar forming a cutoff, as seen in the photograph.
As stream channels shift, these processes leave characteristic landforms on a floodplain. Step 1: Step 2: A narrow neck is formed where a lengthening The neck narrows even more due to meander loops back on itself. Cutbank Undercut bank erosion: Areas of maximum stream velocity darker blue have more power to erode, so they undercut the stream s banks on the outside of a bend. Step 3: The stream erodes through the neck, forming a cutoff. Cutoff Step 4: An oxbow lake forms as sediment fills the area between the new stream channel and its old meander.
Oxbow lake Explain: Explain the relationship between stream velocity, erosion, and deposition in the formation of a meander. GEOquiz Visualize: Study a geosciences animation of meander and oxbow lake formation. Assess: Demonstrate understanding of meander and oxbow lake formation if assigned by instructor.
Explain: Explain the processes that cause a gentle bend along a stream to become a deeply looping meander. Summarize: Summarize the process by which a stream, over time, could produce the landscape in the GIA Figure The geomorphic handiwork of alpine glaciers. As the glaciers retreat, the new landscape is unveiled. Inset photos are surface and aerial views from Norway. Lawrence Rivers. Geosystems Now open each chapter with interesting, current applications of physical geography and Earth systems science.
New Geosystems Now Online features direct students online to related resources.. Focus Studies present detailed discussions of critical physical geography topics, emphasizing the applied relevance of physical geography today. Eustace survived using a special pressure suit developed during 3 years of preparation by his scientific support team.
The experiences of these men illustrate the evolution of our understanding of upper-atmosphere survival. From events such as Kittinger s dangerous leap of discovery, the now routine spacewalks of astronauts such as Mark Lee, and the and record-breaking jumps, scientists have gained important information about the atmosphere. This chapter explores solar energy, the seasons, and our current knowledge of the atmosphere as it protects Earth s living systems. Do you think these recent feats makes Kittinger s accomplishment less important?
Limited structural damage in mainland communities such as Prince Rupert resulted. The Canadian and American governments have established a network of Global Positioning System GPS receivers to monitor the motion of the Earth s surface in response to compression and shearing occurring along convergent plate boundaries Cascadia subduction zone and transform plate boundaries San Andreas fault Queen Charlotte fault, that separates the Pacific and North American plates , respectively.
Air Force. Guided by Colonel Kittinger s voice from mission control, Baumgartner survived an out-of-control spin early in his fall, reaching a top free-fall speed of km h 1. Watched live online by millions around the globe, his fall lasted 4 minutes, 20 seconds faster than Kittinger s free fall by 17 seconds. On October 24, , computer scientist Alan Eustace set a triggered camera captures a stratospheric leap into history.
Figure Plate tectonic setting of western North America. The Juan de Fuca plate is currently being subducted beneath the North American continent; the convergent plate boundary is indicated by the Cascadia subduction zone along the eastern margin of the Juan de Fuca plate.
The blue arrow indicates the movement of this plate. A divergent plate boundary indicated by green arrows marks the western margin of the Juan de Fuca plate. This region is characterized by active volcanism and seismic activity. Blue arrows indicate movement along this fault. Seismic activity along this fault produces infrequent, largemagnitude megathrust earthquakes. It must also protect the wearer from thermal extremes. Earth s oxygen carbon dioxide processing systems must also be replicated in the suit, as must fluid-delivery and waste-management systems.
The suit must maintain an internal air pressure against the space vacuum; for pure oxygen, this is All parts of the modern spacesuit work to duplicate what the atmosphere does for us on a daily basis. Figure GN 3. This region is one of the few areas in the world where divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries occur in proximity to one another Figure , resulting in significant earthquake activity.
More than earthquakes of magnitude 5 or greater capable of causing damage were recorded offshore in the past 75 years. The oceanic Juan de Fuca plate, which extends from the northern tip of Vancouver Island to northern California Figure , is moving east toward North America.
The Juan de Fuca plate is sliding beneath the North American plate within the Cascadia subduction zone at a convergence rate of about 40 mm per year. Earthquake activity in this region is unusual in that instruments record few small low magnitude earthquakes and infrequent large magnitude events Figure. A magnitude 7. Farther north, in a region extending from northern Vancouver Island to Haida Gwaii Queen Charlotte Islands , the oceanic Pacific plate is sliding northwestward relative to North America at a rate of 60 mm per year Figure.
The transform boundary separating the Pacific and North American plates is known as the Queen Charlotte fault, the Canadian equivalent of the San Andreas fault. A magnitude 8. He was travelling at km h 1, almost nine times faster than a high-speed rifle bullet, the vacuum of space all around him. Radiation and solar wind struck his pressure suit.
To survive at such an altitude is an obvious challenge, one that relies on the ability of National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA spacesuits to duplicate the Earth s atmosphere. Kittinger s Record-Setting Jump In an earlier era, before orbital flights, scientists did not know how a human could survive in space or how to produce an artificial atmosphere inside a spacesuit.
The air pressure was barely measurable this altitude is considered the beginning of space in experimental-aircraft testing. Kittinger then leaped into the stratospheric void, at tremendous personal risk, for an experimental reentry into the atmosphere Figure GN 3. He carried an instrument pack on his seat, his main chute, and pure oxygen for his breathing mask. Initially frightened, he heard nothing, no rushing sound, for there was not enough air to produce any sound.
The fabric of his pressure suit did not flutter, for there was not enough air to create friction against the cloth. His speed was remarkable, quickly accelerating to km h 1 nearly the speed of sound at sea level owing to the lack of air resistance in the stratosphere. When his free fall reached the stratosphere and its ozone layer, the frictional drag of denser atmospheric gases slowed his body.
He then dropped into the lower atmosphere, finally falling below airplane flying altitudes. Kittinger s free fall lasted 4 minutes and 37 seconds to the opening of his main chute at m. The parachute lowered him safely to Earth s surface. Data from these networks indicate that the Cascadia subduction zone is currently locked westcan-eng. Earth scientists believe that the energy currently being stored along the Cascadia subduction zone will be released in a future megathrust earthquake. On its windward slope, rainfall averaged cm a year for the years In contrast, the rain-shadow side of Kaua i received only 50 cm of rain annually.
If no islands existed at this location, this portion of the Pacific Ocean would receive only an average These statistics are from established weather stations with a consistent record of weather data; several stations claim higher rainfall values, but do not have dependable measurement records.
Cherrapunji, India, is m above sea level at 25 N latitud e, in the Assam Hills south of the Himalayas. Summer monsoons pou r in from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal, producing cm of rainfall in one month. Not surprisingly, Cherrapunji is the all-time precipitation record holder for a single year, cm, and for ever y other time interval from 15 days to 2 years. The average annual precipitation there is cm, placing it second only to Mount Waialeale. Record precipitation occurrences in Canada exist for locations along the Pacific Coast, on the windward side of the mountains.
Henderson Lake, on Vancouver Island, is the wettest location in Canada, with an average annual precipitation of cm. GEO report Both the Sumatran Andaman quake and the Tohoku quake in Japan caused Earth s axial tilt to shift several centimetres. NASA scientists estimate that the redis tribution of mass in each quake shortened daylength by 6.
Recently, scientists collected and dated samples of these communities in the Canadian Arctic. They also successfully cultured the plant s in a laboratory, using a single cell of the exhumed material to regenerate the entire original organism.
Thus, bryophytes can survive long periods of burial under thick glacial ice, and under the right conditions, potentially recolonize a landscape after glaciation. Explain the concepts of stream gradient and base level, and describe the relationship between stream velocity, depth, width, and discharge.
Explain the processes involved in fluvial erosion and sediment transport. The degree to which any phenomenon is a hazard depends on its magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. The frequency with which a flood of a certain magnitude or higher can be expected to occur is called its recurrence interval.
Recurrence intervals can be determined wherever long-term river-gauging records are available, and are given by the formula: Describe the depositional landforms associated with floodplains and alluvial fan environments. Flood Frequency Analysis Statistically, we then expect a flood of magnitude m3 s 1 or higher to occur on average once every 7 to 8 years.
On average is emphasized, as it is incorrect to expect a flood of this magnitude or higher to occur on a regular cycle of once every 7 to 8 years. Sometimes the interval between floods of this magnitude or higher will be shorter than 7 to 8 years, and sometimes it will be longer. A recurrence interval cannot be used to predict when a flood of a certain magnitude will occur in the future. The relationship can also be expressed as the probability of a flood of given magnitude occurring in any given year Pr.
Humans use rivers for recreation and have farmed higher fertile floodplain soils for Dams and diversions alter river flows and sediment loads, affecting river Table AQS River restoration efforts include dam removal to nual peak discharge is independent of other values in the table. The 4 Flooding affects human settlements on floodplainspeak and deltas. Key Learning Concepts Review at the end of each chapter concludes the learning path and features summaries, narrative definitions, a list of key terms with page numbers, and review questions.
Peakresidents, Discharge Peak Discharge According to local Year m3 s 1 Year m3 s 1 water levels in Passau, Germany, were higher than any recorded in the past years. Describe drainage patterns. Define the various patthe trees anchor the terns that commonly appear in nature.
What drain-understanding. Where you attend school? Drainage density is determined by the number and examination. Drainage tion, distribution, and properties specifically, at your campus is located. Where are its headwaters? Base level is the lowesttion, distribution, and properties specifically, water at to the arrangement of channels area as A local base and below Earth s surface.
Fluvial stream-referselevation and below Earth s surface. Fluvial processes areprocesses stream- arepattern limit of stream erosionininan a region. Use Figure The basic fluvial system is a drainage, or related. The basic fluvial system isbasin a drainage basin, or by level occurs when something interrupts the stream s abildrainage basins and divides for your region, and then take able climate, hydrology, relief of the land, and structural watershed, which is an open system.
Drainage divides watershed, which is an open system. Drainage divides ity to achieve base level, such as a dam or a landslide that a look at this region on Google EarthTM. Investigate whether controls imposed by the landscape. Seven basic drainage NASA. Inage anybasin. Can you find downslope indownslope a thin filminofa sheetflow overland, flow.
In , Americans spent p. High ground that sepa p. High inground that sepa- Michigan, to flood impacts. Montana, Missouri, rates one valley and another directs sheetflow is sheetflow sheetflow p. Extensive mountain and highland regions continental divide p. Extensive mountain andenough highland regions quality that they aredischarge may decrease with distance downstream as water act as continental divides that separate major drainage flow reestablishment, and restoration of stream drainage p.
Some regions, such as the Great Salt Lake Basin, drainage density p. Some regions, such as the Great SaltonLake Basin, criteria such have internal drainage that does not reach the ocean, drainage pattern a hydrograph as the water quality and quantity, Global climate change may intensify storm place is p. Precipitation events in systems, including hurricanes, have internal drainage that does not reach the ocean, the accessibility, and the specific species urban areas result in higher during floods.
In increasing runoffpeak andflows flooding in affected Rising sea level will make only outlets being evaporation and subsurface present. Drainage density is determined by the number and length of channels in a given area and is an expression gradient p. Drainbase level p. Seven the flow of water through streams, we examined fluvial processes and landforms While following FPO 7.
Explain the base level concept. What happens to a basic drainage patterns are generally found and in thenature: river-system outputs of discharge and sediment. We saw that a scientific understanding stream s base level when a reservoir is constructed? What was the impact of flood discharge on the is chanand deranged. In the next the San Juan River near Utah?
Why didchapter, we examine the hydrology p. A significant of thebetween human population lives in coastal areas, making the difficulties drainage basin p. Define the term fluvial.
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Advanced Swift - Unsafe Memory Access. Swift lets access the machine at its lowest level. This course will show you how. Advanced Swift - Values and References. Find out the details in this course. This course uses Alamofire 5. Applications of Custom Property Wrappers.
Understanding CALayers is critical if you want to build your own custom controls or create advanced animations and view controller transitions. This course covers a wide range of topics, from fundamental data structures to advanced pathfinding algorithms. Eradicate View and View Controller confusion! Covers shapes, colors, drawing with Pencil, and how to integrate them into a These patterns are frequently used throughout iOS development, and every iOS Learn about it here!
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See how to implement state restoration, unique UIs You'll learn about both in this course! In this course, you'll learn to train models on a Mac and use them for data analysis. Learn more about creating complex constraints and creating universal layouts for all devices. Programming in Swift: Functions and Types. Programming in Swift: Fundamentals. Take a deep dive into the Swift language, learning about core Swift concepts like loops, collections, types, Reactive Programming in iOS with Combine.
Reusable SwiftUI Views in the raywenderlich. Get a glimpse into how we used SFSymbols, managed colors, and made the most of live previews. This course explores common methods for persisting user data, all from within Xcode Playgrounds. This course will walk you through the basics of scroll views, showing you to use them in a variety of layouts. This course will cover the basics to get you off the ground running before moving on to create SwiftUI interfaces that seamlessly integrate alongside Learn about SwiftUI Views, modifiers, essential layout tools, navigation, data flow, and previews.
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Come learn the basics of how to do that - it's pretty simple! This screencast will cover the process. This screencast will walk you through the process. In this screencast, you'll see how you can read files from outside your app. This video will show you how to adapt your layout to larger or smaller text based whether an accessbility style has been selected.
In this screencast, you'll learn how to scale other elements. In this screencast, you'll learn how to incorporate Dynamic Type with your own fonts. Hero makes it simple to achieve the kind of results you'd expect from software like Keynote, in your own apps. Hint: If you are doing asynchronous coding - a lot! Git - Dependency Management Using Submodules. Git - Third Party Dependencies with Submodules. Help users around the world enjoy your app!
You'll do this by way of planes and then by way of feature points. You'll learn about the various framework components and how to enable ARKit in your app. In this video, you'll learn the basics of implementing it. Discover how to transcribe audio recordings in this iOS 10 screencast.
Discover how to use this new functionality. Discover how in this iOS 10 screencast. Discover the changes in this screencast! Get up to speed with this quick introduction. Discover how to make use of it using the new UIFeedbackGenerator class.
Discover how in this screencast. Let's learn to localize an app that already has Internationalization support. You don't want your work to go to waste. Scripting in Swift - Managing Dependencies. Scripting in Swift - Writing a Script. In this video we'll improve our Test Driven Development and functional programming skills by performing the Game of Life Kata. In this video, we'll introduce you to a really cool practice to help you improve your skills as a Swift developer: Swift Code Katas!
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