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According to MED override n. That knights must perform feats of arms to prove themselves worthy of the women they love is one of the most central motivating forces in medieval chivalric fiction, and indeed in heroic literature more broadly. As is the case here, these tests often provide the impetus for narrative action that would appeal to a mixed audience.

Treuth is a fundamental principle of medieval chivalry. It encompasses virtues such as honor, fidelity, and integrity. See MED treuth n. The Mediterranean Sea. In Torrent and related romances such as Sir Eglamour of Artois lines , , , Octavian lines , , and Sir Isumbras line , the Mediterranean is understood as a boundary and point of contact between the East and West, between the Muslim world and the Christian world. See also Hudson, ed.

Four Middle English Romances , p. Samson was an Old Testament hero known for his extraordinary strength and his ill-fated relationship with the temptress Delilah, who betrayed him by cutting his hair upon discovering that it was the source of his strength. His wondrous story is recounted in Judges —, and it was well known in the Middle Ages, as an historical account, a typological allegory, and a moral tale.

As Torrent is not made a knight until lines —19, it is rather odd that he has squires assisting him at this point. In the feudal structure of later medieval military service a squire was a young man who attended upon a knight. A lists these as evidence that the poem may have been written by a monk pp. For the other prayers see lines —39, —73, —95, —99, —79, —14, —, —51, —69, —25, and — See Whiting S See MED wed n.

Field, — See Whiting C Blue; that is, he turned pale out of fear. The disjunction here suggests that there is perhaps one stanza missing between lines and That lions were powerless to harm ladies of genteel birth, or that they must submit themselves to those who remained virgins, seems to have held some folkloric currency in the Middle Ages.

Early readers who encountered Torrent in C would have also seen this trope in Bevis of Hampton , another romance in C. This romance makes clear that the heroine, Josian, cannot be harmed by the lions she encounters in a cave because she is a pure virgin ed. Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury, lines — In Octavian ed. Hudson, lines —51 and the Prose Lancelot ed.

Sommer , the lion refuses to harm the child of a king. See Whiting G M hesitantly identifies Gales as Galicia, a medieval kingdom located on the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine p. Sugano, lines — A less exotic possibility is that Gales refers to Wales. A, however, suggests that this line is corrupt in multiple ways p. The possible errors in the manuscript make any speculation on the names and places in this stanza dubious at best.

For comparable moments see lines —92, —04, —25, —55, —59, and — For other examples of decapitation as the trophy motif in Middle English romance, see King Horn ed. Hudson, lines —, —95 , and the Alliterative Morte Arthure ed. Benson, lines — See Allen, Genitives in Early English , especially chapters 3 and 4. The kiss is a formal greeting intended to display trust and affection. To put the king at ease, Torrent commands the lions to lie down while they embrace. Velond, or Weyland, was a master blacksmith of Old Norse legend.

He was a well-known figure throughout the Middle Ages, mentioned in English literature as early as Beowulf ed. Klaeber, line Named swords suggest both their uniqueness and their extraordinary quality. Field, , the name Adolake does not hold any obvious or explicit onomastic significance, or hearken to any traditions beyond the romance.

The word survived into the Middle English period and still held some currency in the fifteenth century, particularly in romances. For another named sword, see lines —16, and the corresponding note to line below. Proverbial see Whiting F , though usually used to describe beautiful women, not horses. See also note to line 31 above. Moreover, the magical aid ascribed to this particular horse — that no man shall die whilst mounted on it — suggests its value beyond the ordinary.

This supernatural attribute, however, or any of the consequences thereof, is not mentioned again in the romance. Magic rings are by far the most common gifts women give to their lovers in romance, as seen in lines — According to a well-known medieval legend, witnessed in the Legenda aurea , Mary Magdalene lived for thirty years in a forest, supposedly in Provence trans. Ryan, And lyons. The forests of medieval romance, even those set in Britain or in western Europe more broadly, are often filled with exotic and dangerous animals.

Apes present only in F. By the fifteenth century, though, the presence of such dangerous creatures in romance had become a mainstay. Raynaud, 1. For another encounter with lions and bears in Torrent see lines —56, as well as the note to line below. Dragons or serpents with heads at both ends amphisbaenae were known to medieval encyclopedists and natural philosophers such as Isidore of Seville trans.

Barney et al. According to Collins Symbolism of Animals , p. For the power of the horses is in their mouths, and in their tails. For, their tales are like to serpents, and have heads: and with them they hurt. The author, or copyist, apparently forgot what he wrote in lines —27 and that Torrent had only his sword to hand.

An ell was a unit of measurement commonly used by merchants in the textile industries. Its length varied from country to country, but an English ell was equal to 45 inches for comparison, a Scotch ell was Torrent is a romance more densely populated with giants and dragons than most. It is, moreover, unique amongst surviving Middle English romances in that it establishes what appears to be a master and pet relationship between giants and dragons, both in these lines and with a different giant and two dragons in lines — The author seems to be rather fond of this bucolic tableau.

He uses it twice more, with slight variations, at lines —18 and — Literally, a dark or gloomy wood, though in Middle English romance the term is frequently used to suggest wildness and danger borne of the unknown. For more on wild places in romance, see Saunders, Forest of Medieval Romance. See the note to line above.

Those convicted of treason in England were sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, a punishment introduced by Edward I in the thirteenth century Bellamy, Law of Treason , pp. To ensure none of the tortures were redundant for the accused, the drawing and quartering took place after the hanging but before death. By quartering the squire and hanging the cuts from a tree branch, he could be simply aging the meat for a more tender and flavorful meal. Cannibalistic giants have a long history in medieval romance, from Geoffrey of Monmouth in the s ed.

Thorpe, The History of the Kings of Britain , pp. Field, Le Morte Darthur , — See also lines —, which Kennedy also suggests were a source for Malory. The name of the sword, not the prince. For more on Adolake, and on named swords in romance, see the notes to line above and to lines —91 below.

While Gospel accounts never represent Mary Magdalene first named in Mark at a well, it is likely that medieval traditions conflated her with the unnamed Samaritan woman whom Jesus encounters at a well in John —42, among others Haskins, Mary Magdalen , pp. The cult of Mary Magdalene was particularly strong in medieval England as it was in France , with her feast day assigned to a prime midsummer slot: 22 July.

By the end of the Middle Ages nearly churches were dedicated to her, along with two colleges, Magdalen Oxford and Magdalene Cambridge , both of which, of course, only admitted men ed. As patron saint of Spain, his body was translated to Santiago de Compostella, where his shrine became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in medieval Europe Farmer, Dictionary of Saints , p.

Given that Calamond has been presented with the severed head of a giant, the oath may not be coincidental. Calamond swears by St. James again in line Based on Apocalypse —9, the archangel Michael is often represented in medieval iconography as slaying a dragon or standing over a dead dragon. As the patron saint of soldiers, he is also frequently represented wielding a banner and a sword. Within medieval Catholic tradition it would have been considered an act of charity to provide for masses to be performed, and prayers said, for the souls of the departed.

This practice, it was believed, would help speed souls through the pains of purgatory and quicken their path to Heaven. See also the note to line 31 above. The petitionary or advisory role was well established for virtuous women of the period, especially women of the court. Thomas of Chobham, in his thirteenth-century Summa confessorum ed. Broomfield, 7. Compare lines 73—75, and the explanatory note to line 73 above. Hatheloke ys ys name.

See note to line above. See the note to line 31 above. That Torrent begins his day by going to mass is in keeping with the expectations of Christian chivalry, at least within the world of romance. See the reiteration of this practice in line Near the end of the romance he sits next to the king at the high table line , signifying his social ascendancy.

Provence, a region of southern France with a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. More than once in medieval romance does the devil or a devil impregnate human women while they sleep, or while they are otherwise unaware. The progeny of these couplings tend to be monstrous, as with Sir Gowther or Robert the Devil , but the most famous example of this motif is the child, Merlin. Pickens, Story of Merlin , pp. There are several possible candidates for this allusion.

The seventh-century scholar and missionary St. Adrian also called Hadrian , an African monk who accompanied Theodore of Tarsus when he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in , was widely venerated in England. The location of his tomb in St. Thomas Becket. It was also common for English monarchs to either send offerings to his tomb, or deliver them in person, and Henry III ordered two altars to be built to Adrian, one at Westminster and one in Dover Castle.

See Webb, Pilgrimage in Medieval England , pp. A potentially more tantalizing possibility, however, is the early martyr saint Adrian of Nicomedia d. Ryan, —64 , as well as in the Scottish Legendary, c. Metcalfe, —91 , and the Gilte Legende from ed.

Hamer, — Adrian is a soldier who fights for Emperor Maximian, and who converts to Christianity when he witnesses the fortitude of Christians facing torture and execution for their faith. The main part of his legend focuses on his relationship with his wife Natalia. Both are young and beautiful, and both are wholly devoted to each other. In swearing by St. The representation of minstrels performing in a court has an air of self-referentiality to it in a romance that itself may have been performed by minstrels, and perhaps even within court settings.

See note to lines 7 and 10 above for more on oral tags within the text. For another instance of minstrelsy and performance see lines — M suggests that the author has conflated Calabria and Hungary, perhaps because both had coastlines on the Adriatic Sea. An early example in English of this proverbial expression the earliest of six citations in Whiting D Forshall and Madden, p.

Torrent soon tests his spear and shield line , so it seems most logical that he would want to test his third weapon — his sword — here, rather than testing his spear twice. It is a common insult in medieval romance, as it is in masculine-oriented heroic literature more broadly.

Large crooks are standard weapons for giants in medieval romance, as are huge clubs, staffs the size of tree trunks, and other crude implements appropriate for those who lack the chivalric sophistication of steel swords and armor. West , a Latin text commonly taught in schools. In other words, the adventure is so dangerous that Torrent expects to die. God me save. The king is giving Torrent the land free of any homage or feudal dues, and Torrent and his heirs will own it in perpetuity. Heraldic devices such as these were used to identify knights who would be covered head to foot in armor.

The colors azure and gold are often used in romance to indicate true nobility M, p. For other depictions of heraldry see lines —74, —58, and — Braswell, lines — According to MED tynding ger. Disguise is one of the most popular narrative tropes in Middle English romance, and knights regularly hide their true identities or, at certain points in their narratives, appear unrecognizable, even to those who know them best. Slashed shoes, cut for decoration, are often worn by knights in medieval romance.

Schmidt, Such shoes are likely implied in line See also M, p. See line and the corresponding note on griffins, as well as line and its note on Antony Fice Greffoun. A stave is a post or a pole. See OED stave n. As with Cate, Colbrond refuses to fight on horseback because he is too heavy, a clear sign of his inherent inability to conform to chivalric standards ed. Zupitza, lines — A similar logic operates in the romance Bevis of Hampton , which also survives in C; in this case the giant Ascopard refuses to be baptized because he cannot fit within the baptismal font ed.

Knights are rarely shown going to confession before a dangerous adventure in romance, with Gawain in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ed. Gollancz, lines —92 being an outlier. The underlying principle is that, in the likely event from their point of view that they should die, their absolution would speed them straight to heaven rather than to purgatory.

Laskaya and Salisbury, lines — That Torrent throws stones at the giant Cate hearkens to the well-known account of David and Goliath in the Old Testament, though of course David uses a slingshot 1 Samuel — In other words, Torrent wins both land half of Aragon, from line and the right to wed Desonell promised in line M further speculates that it was chosen because it was on the popular pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostella p. Legally sanctioned separations, be they divorces or annulments, were relatively rare in the Middle Ages.

They were normally granted only if it could be shown in court that the spouses were related i. Laskaya and Salisbury, lines —93 ; if there was evidence of infertility prostitutes could be used, in court, to provide such evidence ; or if there was some sort of legal impediment to the marriage, such as one of the partners being already married to someone else McCarthy, Marriage in Medieval England , pp.

Such a display of ecclesiastical legality finds an analogue in the Middle English prose Brut chronicle c. Brie, — In Torrent , the grounds for separation are never spelled out, though we could be meant to infer that it was allowed because Desonell had earlier been promised to Torrent lines 55—60 , or because her marriage to the prince had not been consummated, or both.

Anne of Cleves, who outlived Henry VIII, agreed to an annulment on the grounds that, she claimed, the marriage had not been consummated, though the king argued for the annulment on the basis of her pre-contract of marriage with Francis I, duke of Lorraine Warnicke, The Marrying of Anne of Cleves , pp. Nicholas of Bari would later become the model for Santa Claus, as he was known for giving unexpected gifts.

In various places around Europe Nicholas also happens to be the patron saint of thieves, pawnbrokers, and students. Essentially, Calamond offers Desonell to Torrent as a piece of property for his pleasure. Compare to lines —25, in which women are understood as prizes akin to other forms of property, such as land. See MED brouken v. This is typical of the kind of veiled language used to indicate lovemaking in romance.

Rings as recognition tokens have a long history in medieval romance, going back at least to the twelfth century Anglo-Norman Romance of Horn. On recognition tokens, see Cooper, English Romance in Time , pp. The recognition often comes from the design or signet of the ring, though in Torrent it is simply the gold, and the wealth it signifies, that marks out the young children as nobility Leobertus, lines —25; Antony, lines —62 and — The rings are also used at the end of the romance to bring about the long-deferred family reunion lines — Recognition tokens in Middle English romance take other forms as well, from embroidered cloths to gloves to sword-tips.

In lines —29 Desonell and her mother tear a silk cloth, each taking half before Desonell is sent out to sea on a rudderless boat. The practice of using two identical objects, or one object split in half, so that only its counterpart will match, is a common technique for creating at least the possibility of a reunion after long periods.

Many of these tokens can still be seen in the London Foundling Museum. In the Middle Ages swooning was understood to be a consequence of the physiological effects of either intense grief or overwhelming physical pain. It was not, in the period, connected with weakness or effeminacy, or with misogynistic stereotypes of temporary loss of control or irrationality.

In Torrent Desonell does most of the swooning, though Torrent swoons once, when he hears the news that Desonell and their two infant children had been exiled from Portugal in a rudderless boat lines — Remarkably, when Desonell is actually set adrift, people watching from the beach simultaneously swoon lines — For other instances see lines —85, , and — That is, Torrent and his men anchor their ship along a forested stretch of land and remain aboard for a time.

See MED riden v. See note to line above for more on confession in romance. Torrent and his men ride through a forest of Brazil trees, not through a forest in the South American country. After the discovery of the New World Brazil was first colonized by Portugal, as it happens , the name gradually transferred to a similar South American wood, and eventually, to the land of Brazil OED Brazil n.

See also MED brasile n. The Torrent -author presumably mentions Brazil trees here to conjure up associations with the mythical Atlantic island, so as to amplify the exotic and dangerous setting, as if Norway — where they really are line — is not foreign enough. Norway is an unlikely place to encounter lions in the wild, though Norwegian bears are real enough. For more wildlife in Torrent see lines —09 and the corresponding note above, —, —86, —47, —47, —21, and — Lays are short narrative songs thought to be originally composed by ancient Bretons and performed with the accompaniment of a harp.

In the twelfth century Marie de France wrote twelve lays in Anglo-Norman French, treating matters of courtesy, chivalry, and courtly love. The form proved to be popular in the later Middle Ages, and several survive in Middle English. Laskaya and Salisbury.

Why the two dragons are singing a lay is a difficult question to answer, just as it is hard to imagine what their lay would be about. Unfortunately, the text gives no firm indication as to whether or not one of the dragons is also playing a harp.

Amis and Amiloun , ed. Foster, includes a similar heavenly voice at line See Whiting B For more on the familial and domestic aspects of giants in Torrent, see lines —75 and the note above. The multiple pronouns in this passage occasionally make it difficult to distinguish between Torrent and the giant named Weraunt in line During the struggle the crook breaks, but not before inflicting considerable pain on Torrent — Weraunt then strides into the water and apparently drowns while attempting to recover his weapons — See Whiting L George was a popular medieval figure, best known for rescuing a lady from a dragon.

He has been connected with a huge number of patronages, including — perhaps coincidentally — England, Portugal, and Aragon. He is also the patron saint of knights, crusaders, horsemen, armorers, and archers. Women in romance are often shown to be skilled in the medical sciences, such as Melior in Partonope of Blois , Josian in Bevis of Hampton , and Loospaine in Eger and Grime , among many others.

The connection appears to stem from real-life practices. From the twelfth century, women were linked to the healing arts through the legendary figure Trotula, and the medical texts associated with her. See Barratt, ed. Here the king of Norway is addressing the shipmen who had deserted Torrent at lines — See the note for line above. A sign that the baby will be a boy. The theory that males are conceived on the right and females on the left has origins in Aristotle, and was translated to the medieval West through the twelfth-century Latin gynecological treatise known as the Trotula so named because it was supposed to have been written by a woman named Trotula, a gynecologist or midwife from Salerno, who we now believe to have been called Trota, Trotta, or Trocta.

It was popular both in Latin and in European vernacular languages, and in the fifteenth century it was translated into Middle English. The Harrowing of Hell, a story found only in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, in which Christ descends into hell between his crucifixion and resurrection in order to rescue the righteous dead, was central to stories of the life of Christ in the Middle Ages.

Accounts of the Harrowing survive from the Middle Ages in both Latin and vernacular languages, and in England it often found representation on stage. Female convicts could make such a plea at least as early as , and it was rendered obsolete in the twentieth century by the Sentence of Death Expectant Mothers Act of Desonell and her mother tear the silk cloth in two so that, by matching the two halves, they could recognize each other if they were ever to meet again. For more on recognition tokens see the note to line above.

Rudderless boats have powerful associations in medieval romance, and in medieval Christian tradition more broadly. Typically, they were used as a form of punishment that would result either in exile or, more likely, in death. Whatever happened, however, was entirely in the hands of God, as whoever was in a boat without rudder, sail, or oars had absolutely no control over its direction. For another manifestation of this trope see lines — A griffin is a mythical animal with the head and wings of an eagle and the body and hindquarters of a lion.

In medieval romance, as of course in real life, they are much more commonly represented in heraldic imagery than purported to exist in the real world. Seymour, A griffin also abducts a child in Sir Eglamour of Artois ed. Hudson, lines —31 , and in Octavian ed. Hudson, lines —60 a griffin abducts both a child and the lioness guarding it.

There are two plausible origins for this character. One is St. Anthony, or Anthony the Great, an Egyptian saint and a prominent leader amongst the desert fathers. Gregg, pp. In any case St. Anthony was certainly not, as noted in line , the son of the king of Greece. The other possibility is St. Anthony of Padua, who was born in Lisbon in , and was much venerated in his country of birth.

While also not the son of the king of Greece, he did abandon a wealthy upbringing for his religious calling Life of St. Anthony , ed. Da Rieti, pp. He is also the patron saint of animals, and of finding lost things or people. The ring protects the wearer from injury in combat. Purdie, lines — See the note to lines —67 above for more on magical objects, especially those that are never shown to actually work.

A prose version of the life of St. Katherine survives in C, along with the lives of St. Dorothy and St. Anne see Introduction, p. In medieval England St. Katherine was perhaps the preeminent exemplar of Christian femininity. This is the marvelous horse Desonell gives to Torrent in lines — See also the corresponding note to these lines above.

Here the king of Nazareth makes it clear that he intended it as a wedding gift to her. MED rouen v. For his other grim pun, see line and the note to lines —96 above. In some of the larger ships, such as the Grace Dieu of , the clench-nails could be as large as eight or nine inches in length Friel, Good Ship , p.

There is a sense of poetic justice in condemning the king to the same sentence he had given his daughter. There is another sense, however, in which drilling a rudderless boat full of holes does not give providence much of a fighting chance. See the note to lines —47 above on rudderless boats. The Holy Land, or more specifically, Jerusalem. The poet, or the copyist, seems to have forgotten that in lines —01 Torrent leaves his lands in the care of two knights. This name does not seem to correspond with any known historical city.

A sultan is a ruler of a Muslim kingdom, though in Middle English literature the term is rarely used with much precision, aside from signifying someone pagan, powerful, and antagonistic. Antioch was an ancient Greco-Roman city whose ruins are found near the modern city of Antayka, Turkey. The city was besieged during the First Crusade — At this point Torrent has been fighting Saracens for fifteen years. He besieges the first city for two years line , the second for six years line , and the third for seven years line Meanwhile, his son Leobertus along with his other son, of course has grown old enough to win his spurs.

MED wikked e adj. The meaning of this line is difficult to construe. While this is only conjecture, it is probably at least close to the intended meaning of the original line. Richardson, lines — H and A accord with the reading given here. These two swords are likely Adolake and Mownpolyardns. See the notes to lines and above. That is, Torrent has the deeds established such that the churches and abbeys he founded could do nothing but pray for his soul and the souls of his heirs see A, p.

MED tighten v. On prayers for the dead see the note to lines —58 above. I through F. VII : fragments of early sixteenth-century prints by Richard Pynson ? MS: line begins with a large, five-line rubricated G. MS: Dyscenys. MS: bee. A and M emend likewise. MS: r inserted above the line.

MS: agone , with ne struck out. This stanza appears to be missing its middle six lines between lines 75 and No doubt this lost passage would indicate to whom they in line 77 refers, as would it likely illuminate a reading of line Because the text of Torrent is incomplete, I will indicate missing lines with ellipses, where a three-point ellipsis indicates a single missing line and a four-point ellipsis indicates multiple missing lines.

MS: a inserted above the line. MS: second c erased. So MS, H, M. A reads MS as mauyle , assuming that the scribe erroneously supposed it to be the name of the giant, who is in fact named Begonmese in line The final six lines of this stanza appear to be missing. MS: line begins with a large, four-line rubricated T.

MS: inserted above the line. MS: knyght. Emendation following A and M. So MS, corrected in lighter ink from an unclear word, which is struck out. A: ches. M: ther. MS: smale. A, H, and M emend likewise. MS: ryght , lyght , or possibly fyght , written above the line. MS: Jesu. It is hard to imagine how the scribe could write Jesu abbreviated as Ihu with a macron in this line, and it is suggestive of over-hasty copying, or otherwise mechanical copying without any attention to sense.

MS: not he better. A: not he bettur. M: not he bettyr. MS: spred. MS: Rane. These lines are transposed in MS. MS: he. Emendation following A, H, and M. As I herd in Rome. A adds an ellipsis following this line to suggest missing text, presumably on account of the two non-rhyming tail-lines that follow.

M postulates six missing lines at this point, a new stanza beginning with line , and another six missing lines following line MS: he gan warke. A: gan hym quelle. M: he gan warke. Written above the line in MS.

Perhaps the scribe was not sure which reading he preferred, so included both. MS: Crystyn thow thow they were. Aside from the problem of duplicated thow , lines —40 clearly refer to Torrent, not to the two slain guards, so I have followed the emendation given in A. M: Crystyne thow [that] they were. MS: corrected with lighter ink from whyle. MS: corrected with lighter ink from syngyng. MS: anon sche gothe. This is one of several instances where a simple shift of syntax places the rhyming word at the end of the line.

M: gothe sche a-non. I have added me to line to restore plausible meaning, and wyght to line , a common adjective for ladies of romance see line , to restore consistency in meter and rhyme. MS: They. Emendation following A. The discontinuity in the dialogue between Torrent and Desonell suggests a missing stanza between these lines. A likewise posits a missing stanza. Alternatively, however, M suggests that the discontinuity could be mitigated by restoring my in line see note below , making it possible that MS is complete here p.

See also the explanatory note for these lines. MS: my erased and thy inserted above the line. MS: corrected from my. MS: corrected from gentre. MS: e 1 inserted above the line. MS: d corrected from e. MS: bewte. MS: ondly gode a lone. A: onely Godes myght. M: ondly God all-myght. MS: ow. MS has a struck-out V preceding fyve. Perhaps the scribe decided to spell out the number for the sake of the visual rhyme with lyve ; compare with lines and MS: to sped well.

Rhyming word transposed within the line, following A and M. MS: line begins with a large, four-line rubricated L. MS: wol is followed by a struck-out be. A places lines —45 after lines —48, presumably to clarify that sche in line refers to Elyoner, who is named in line MS: lygand. A: al schynand. Emendation following M. MS: corrected from truste. MS: omitted. MS: corrected from what. MS: corrected from han byn , with byn almost entirely erased.

MS: corrected from gyand. MS: line ends with lle on the , struck out. Emendation following H. MS: e inserted above the line. MS: lyone. MS: wase. MS: Vn. MS: corrected from hem. MS: corrected from that. MS: i written above the line. MS: ther struck out and wer written above. There appears to be a line missing between and , presumably relating how Desonell sees Torrent approaching. MS: hym. Emendation following A and M, to accord with thy in line MS: jent. The epithet ladys clere seems likely given the tail-lines in this stanza end in squyerres , ner , and ther , and given the occurrence of the same expression elsewhere in the poem, in lines and MS: to.

MS: kyngs messengere. MS: That they than to Gales yede , with Gales corrected in lighter ink from Calles and yede corrected from went. Emendations following A. MS: were hym. A emends to Yeftys to take were hem no ned , though given the number of transposed phrases elsewhere in the MS, the transposition of hym were seems like the most likely scribal error.

MS: Downys. There appears to be one line missing between these lines. M places the presumed missing line at lines — MS: G corrected in lighter ink from C. MS: entire line inserted to the right of the main text. MS: i told. M emends likewise. MS: mayne , corrected to mayneyer with lighter ink. MS: to take ys rest. MS: lowe. MS: settythe. MS: prevyd. MS: Portynggalle seyd so mot I thee. Emendation following F. MS: of the. MS: the. I, as in M. So MS. I: walkyd. I: ryvers. MS: were ded. The kyng.

I: this lorde. I: wyst nat. I, as in A. I: came nere and lystened. MS: they ne. MS: Mavdlen. I: Mavdeleyn , as in A. MS: Hys squyers. II: To his squyer. II: abode. MS: nothere. II, as in A. II: omitted. MS: line begins with a large, five-line rubricated T.

MS: thyke. II, as in A and M. II: is. II: towarde the nyght. MS: And in the dawnyng. M: And in the dymmynge. MS: to syght. A: to fond. M: syngande. MS: hys. MS: I have or take other. A and M: I have take order. MS: colvd. A: clow. MS: an. MS, H: swayne. M: swoghe. MS: tellythe. MS: wyd. MS: lyty. Three lines appear to be missing from the end of this stanza. Presumably they would have described the squire riding through the forest toward the castle. A likewise locates the missing lines at line ; M locates them between lines and MS: hem.

MS: fer. MS: wote w yow. MS: wodd. Emendation following A and H. MS: rond. MS: schere. MS: knelyd he. Rhyming word transposed within the line, following M. MS: gownd. MS: ii. So A, M. MS: gyantys ii too. Compare with lines and MS: sche hym chesys. Emendations following A and M. M: sayd. A: quod. H: ase. MS: sylke. A, H: sybbe. MS: knyghts. MS: o inserted above the line. A likewise locates the missing lines at line ; M locates between lines and So MS, M. A reads ho and interprets this as a scribal error and omits to give: browght whome.

MS: lords seyd he be sen myhell. M: He! By Sen Myhell! MS: my her with lle written over the r in lighter ink. MS: prysts v fyve. MS: youngeest. MS: quene to the precedes kyng. Transposition noted and emended in MS. A, H, and M likewise follow the scribal emendation. MS: aseke. A and H emend likewise. MS: swalls. MS: And.

MS: netts. MS: the mydds. III, as in A. MS: sped. III, as in A and M. MS: parmafay. MS: breke. MS: ar I gan Rage. MS, M: me make.

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