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It is a modest start, but you've made an object, converted it to Editable Poly for editing, and added to the model and transformed part of it. These processes are simple, but you'll have to repeat them many times, and these tools alone can help you get a lot done. To finish up, right-click on the model and choose Quad Top-Level from Tools 2. This turns off the Polygon editing mode and lets us adjust the entire model at the Object level rather than the SubObject level. Press W to enter Move mode if you aren't already in it yet another way to do it , and then hold Shift and move the object, which is one way to produce a clone or copy of the model.
Try using the same tools and processes you've just proceeded through to adjust other parts of the model. The extension. To export the model to a game engine like UDK. First of all, it is useful to look at some of the conventions of the 3ds Max UI. While our goal at the moment is to get used to the patterns that windows, buttons, menus, and tabs follow in 3ds Max, some features of 3ds Max will surface along the way that we'll have to reserve discussing in depth until later.
For example, to edit objects, you can add Modifiers to them, and these can be added on top of each other as a stack. From modifier to modifier, the stack GUI arrangement is always the same. Here is what to look out for: any icon like the one next to Editable Poly in the following screenshot means you can expand it to view further parameters.
Other editors in 3ds Max, such as the Curve Editor , share this convention. Shown on the Bend modifier in the following screenshot, an icon will collapse an expanded section back again. The little lamp icon for each modifier lets you enable and disable a given modifier temporarily, without losing its settings. Right-click on the modifier label for example, Bend to get further options such as Delete , Rename , Copy , Cut , Paste , and Off in Viewport which disables a modifier in the scene until render time.
Once expanded, it can be closed by clicking on its label again. These menu items can be re-arranged by dragging them, as can modifiers in the Modifier stack. A blue line will highlight the position they will drop into. The various sections of Command Panel , which can be extensive, can be scrolled using a hand cursor that appears when you drag on empty space in the Command Panel.
You can also use the slider down the right side. This is also true of the Render dialog F The slider is quite thin, but is easy to use once you know that it is there. On the Editable Poly option, if you expand all the sections, you can see this slider. On a modifier such as Bend , which has few parameters, it isn't included. Any icon that shows a text field with a downward triangle icon means you can expand a rollout list, as is the case with Modifier List in the Command Panel.
Likewise, any icon with a little black triangle in the corner can be held down to expand a fly-out revealing more options or tools that relate to it. An example is the Align tool:. Any numeric field can either accept type or be adjusted using a spinner on the right. Most spinners can be right-clicked to drop their value to zero or its lowest possible value; for example, a Cylinder primitive's Sides parameter can only go down to 3 , or it would be a flat object.
Many text buttons and icons in 3ds Max, if you float the cursor over them for a short time, will display the name of the tool, and often a tool tip or instruction referring to the use of the tool. This is particularly true for the Ribbon tools, which often also display illustrations as they expand.
An example of a tool tip is shown in the following screenshot:. The icon , which resembles a pin in the modifier stack, lets you keep a pinned object's modifier stack displayed even if you select a different object in the scene. The icon , which resembles a pin in the Ribbon UI, lets you keep an expanded rollout menu from being reverted closed while the current object is selected. This seems to work when you haven't minimized the Ribbon to one of its three minimized modes.
In the following example, the Teapot primitive's modifier stack is pinned, so it shows even though the Sphere primitive is currently selected. Meanwhile, in the Ribbon UI, the extra tools of the Geometry All section have been expanded and pinned.
This would remain so until some object other than the Sphere primitive was selected instead. The Ribbon UI can be collapsed to a minimal set of headings by clicking on the upward triangle shown at the top of the following screenshot and the tiny downward arrow next to that indicates there are some options for this collapse command.
There is a strange redundancy to this set of options, as the option Minimize to Tabs seems just fine. While the Ribbon is minimized, all you need to do to access the Ribbon tool is click on the tab titles, which then expand out. Similarly, if you are using the Ribbon, then you can drag the labels of each section to re-arrange them, as shown in the following screenshot. The example shows the Graphite Modeling tools, where the Loops section is being dragged next to the Polygon Modeling section.
Note that the Ribbon menus change automatically depending on what is selected and the editing mode you are currently in such as the Polygon mode or the Vertex mode. The next thing to get used to is accessing Settings of tools while editing. Any tool with a box icon next to it, or exposed under it in the case of the Ribbon UI, opens further settings for the tool. In the Quad menu, shown in the following screenshot, many of the editing tools show this.
Right-click in a view with an Editable Poly selected to expose the major editing tools tools 2. Also, a sideways arrow in the Quad menu, as in the case of Convert To: Convert to Editable Poly , reveals options for a command. In the preceding screenshot, the Extrude tool is shown in Polygon mode. There are multiple ways to access the tool itself and its settings: you can do so via the Ribbon or via the Quad menu.
Command Panel has a couple of interesting features: it can be floated, and in versions from 3ds Max , it can be minimized, a lot like the menus in ZBrush, off to the side and out of the way unless needed. By default, Command Panel is docked on the right-hand side of the screen. You can widen it to show several columns by dragging on its edges. Views can also be enlarged in the same way. You can float Command Panel by dragging on its top edge or by right-clicking and choosing Float.
There is also the option to Dock Left. There is also the option to Minimize , which lets Command Panel slide out of view off to the side when not in use. A vertical strip labeled Command Panel , if you roll over it, pops it back out.
When the Command Panel is floated, you can drag it to either side of the screen to re-dock it there, or you can double-click on its label. The label also has a [ ] icon that lets you turn the Command Panel off. To reveal it again, go to the top row of icons—the main toolbar— right-click, and you can enable it from the list of menus there. If you happen to disable the main toolbar, you can get that back again if you go to the left side of the UI, just under the green 3ds Max logo , and right-click to expose a menu that lets you enable it again.
Above the main toolbar are the main menu entries: File , Edit , Tools , Group , and so on. These can be hidden by clicking the down arrow icon and choosing Hide Menu Bar. To get it back, click there again and choose Show Menu Bar. The uppermost icons displayed are entries in the Quick Access Toolbar , which you can add your own entries to by right-clicking on a tool and choosing Add to Quick Access Toolbar.
Unfortunately, such additions are per session additions. Next time you load up 3ds Max, they won't be preserved. The Undo and Redo buttons are there, with icons. If you start to customize the Quick Access Toolbar, you will notice the option when you right-click to add a separator , which is a little dividing bar to space out menu items nicely. These are seen all throughout 3ds Max: in the modifier stack, in the various editor icon rows, and in the Quad menu.
If you really get lost with missing windows you've closed, try going to the Customize menu and choose Revert to Startup Layout. In the current version, the UI is well-designed and visually appealing. The dark tones allow users to work without glare, and the icons are colored for easy spotting.
There are still some legacy UI presets you can try out, including the interface that is used in many tutorials online. You can also save changes you make to the UI in an external file and set it as the default if you wish. This quick demonstration shows two ways to change the presets for the user interface:.
This path includes several options you can try out. There is another way to access UI presets, which is by going to the Customize menu and choosing Custom UI and Defaults Switcher , which has a slight advantage of including visual previews of each UI as you select it in the list. Here you can see a list of tool-based settings and a list of UI schemes on the right.
Let's change the rather annoying Selection Lock Toggle. When turned on, this toggle prevents you from selecting anything else, which can be handy if you intend it to be on, but not so nice if you toggle it on by mistake. Since its hotkey is Space , you can imagine this to be easy to do. Go to the Customize menu and choose Customize User Interface.
This window pops up with the Keyboard tab selected, so all we need to do is browse down the alphabetical list of Actions for Selection Lock Toggle , which also shows its icon the padlock found under the time slider. First, the hotkey Space will show next to Selection Lock Toggle. Don't forget to press Save at the bottom of the window. You'll be prompted to save a. It will be saved with the UI next time you save the UI, and 3ds Max does this anyway when you end the session.
Most commands in 3ds Max let you set a hotkey. You can view the assigned keys by browsing the Shortcut list. Or you can go to the Help menu and choose Keyboard Shortcut Map , which opens an interactive shockwave image that exposes main hotkeys as you roll over a diagram of a keyboard.
Note that this handy utility only shows default hotkeys. The Scale command actually is a flyout with three options. Unfortunately, Smart Scale is not very smart, and often you'll only want to use the regular scale tool only to find you've actually cycled through to the Squash option. There's a very handy shortcut called Transform tools. This tool can be found in the Edit menu, where it's called Transform Toolbox.
It doesn't have a hotkey by default. We'll discuss its functionality later on, and make frequent use of it as we model. Another tool that is often used, which doesn't come with a hotkey, is the Manage Layers dialog , which is used for organizing scene content by layer and also for hiding and freezing content.
Since I use this tool often, I've taken to setting it to Space , since it doesn't matter if I tap on it by mistake; it is easy to notice the dialog when it opens or closes. The link downloads a. Once installed, this uses the hotkey H , which overrides the Select By Name tool's hotkey, so you may want to set Select by Name to another hotkey or use a different hotkey for the Outliner. Note that content hidden by the By Layer option in the Layer Manager can't be unhidden by the Outliner if you are in Hierarchy mode.
At the bottom of the Outliner there is an icon that enables Layer mode, a substitute for the actual Layer Manager. You may have noticed that when you right-click, a menu appears under the cursor with shortcuts to many tools distributed elsewhere in the 3ds Max UI. For instance, you can press the Select icon or press Q or you can right-click and choose Select from the Quad menu. This menu can be changed to suit your need, though part of its utility comes from memorizing its layout for speedy access, so making changes often may defeat the purpose.
Still, there are a few tools that you'll regularly use that could benefit from being in the Quad menu. Swift Loop is a tool used to add additional edge loops to an Editable Poly model. We'll discuss its use later too, but in brief, you can add a box to your scene, right-click on it, and choose Quad menu Convert To: Editable Poly. Clicking this enters a mode whereby clicking on an edge will add a perpendicular loop to the model.
Using the Swift Loop tool is very handy, but accessing it from the Ribbon time and again is frustrating. It would be better to add it to the Quad menu, where it is always right under the cursor. The following demonstration shows how to add this commonly used modeling tool to the Quad menu:. Previously, we changed settings in the Keyboard tab; this time, skip over to the Toolbars tab to get the Quads tab.
Several common tools are arranged for easy, swift access. There is a version for both and version of 3ds Max. There are four squares on the right side of the UI, with the transform section highlighted in yellow. Click on the lower-left square tools 2. Of course, you can drop it where you like, but this is a reasonable location, and it will show up as shown in the following screenshot when you right-click to access the Quad menu.
At the bottom of the window, press Save and try it out. A preference you may want to set while in the Quads tab of the Customize User Interface dialog is to turn off Show All Quads option, via its tickbox. What this does is it only displays the part of the quad box that you highlight with the mouse. It uses less screen space as only a quarter of the menu is seen at one time.
Should you want to remove or rename an entry in the Quad menu, right-click on it to access a menu showing those options. Note that there are contextual Quad menus depending on what mode you are working in, and you can edit these by expanding the rollout that shows Default Viewport Quad. Also, you will notice there are hotkeys to filter the Quad menu. This is quicker than moving the cursor up to the Snap icon to right-click and access the Grid and Snap Settings menu.
The hotkey for entering Snap mode is S and it uses whatever settings you most recently set. Snaps are used for precision modeling, and snapping functionality is discussed further in Chapter 5 , The Language of Machines: Designing and Building Model Components. The most obvious way to change the viewports is to resize the default 4 x 4 panels by dragging their inner frame border. There are more controls for the view arrangement.
Click this tab and notice the two rows of preset panel layouts. Click on any of them, and then click on the large panels that are labeled with the current setting. A list will appear with the available options you can set. This method is the only way to swap out a Track View option that has been set in a viewport, so keep it in mind if you do any animation. Some of its navigation tools go way back to the early days, and over time some replacement navigation tools have been added.
If you are used to an old navigation method, then a new one sometimes doesn't appear to add any advantage, whereas to a new user or a user familiar with other applications using the same method , it can seem obvious to use the newer tool. We're going to evaluate all the methods to navigate the views, and you can decide for yourself which you prefer. Remember that if you use more than one 3D application, then it is always a good practice to use the same method in both cases, especially for scene navigation.
Unfortunately, few applications share common UI defaults. The quickest way to access Pan Mode in 3ds Max is to hold and drag the middle mouse button. You will notice that the Orthographic views pan is less jumpy than the Perspective view. The quickest way to access Orbit mode is to hold Alt and drag the middle mouse button. All the main navigation modes make use of the middle mouse button.
There are, however, other ways to orbit. Their functions will be discussed as we go through this chapter. Open the. You will see an assembly of un-textured models that form an industrial platform. We'll practice zooming around these, as having objects in the scene gives a more visceral feeling to the views than an empty scene does. In the bottom-right corner of the UI there is a panel of viewport control buttons. In the following screenshot, these buttons are shown on the left for the Perspective view and are shown on the right for the Orthographic views basically the same except for Region Zoom shown by default in Orthographic as FOV doesn't work in Orthographic views.
Zoom mode, if chosen here with the magnifying glass icon , permits a very smooth forward and backward motion of the virtual camera. You can also zoom if you scroll the mouse wheel, but that is an incremental zoom. This somewhat clunky key combo can be changed to suit in the Customize Customize UI Interface dialog in the Mouse tab in the settings under Category Navigation.
This has several tabs at the top. Click on the one called Mouse. The default zoom uses the center of the active view. The zoom options just mentioned use the cursor location in the view. Checking these two options lets you zoom into objects under the cursor more easily, without having to pan. Below this is a numerical input field for Wheel Zoom Increment. The lowest number it accepts is 0.
Enter 0. This scene has been scaled so that this value works well. In larger scenes, you may find the increment doesn't work so well. The thing to do is try out values until you're happy. Notice as you zoom now with the mouse wheel in the Orthographic views top, front, and left that zoom has a different feel than scrolling in the Perspective view , which seems faster. To reframe a view, if you are lost, it helps to select an object or polygon and press Zoom Extents Selected , discussed next.
When you are spinning around an object, it frames the selection in the current view. The default for the flyout with the icon is Zoom Extents , which frames the whole scene, but I find that Zoom Extents Selected is much more useful because it lets us locate items we've selected by name. Select By Name H is a command that lets you choose objects from a pop-up list.
You can also use the legacy Orbit command via its icon in the view controls panel. If you drag the crossed squares, the cursor changes to indicate that you'll be orbiting in one axis, either up and down or side to side. If you drag outside the circle, the cursor changes to indicate you'll tilt the view. The Orbit icon we mentioned, , actually has three settings. I find that almost always I use just one, but it isn't the default. If you click-and-hold the flyout icon, it reveals three options.
Any icon in 3ds Max with a black triangle in the bottom-right corner has the same flyout options, a convention also seen in many other applications. The following screenshot shows the flyout buttons:. The last option works well when you are editing some small part of an object and want to orbit around that part, but it also works fine at any level of selection.
Usually I set 3ds Max to use this and leave it that way. The ViewCube is a tool introduced to many Autodesk products so they share a common basis for navigation. It is debatable how many people really use this tool, but for new users it is certainly a good way for learning how 3D space works. Power users will probably turn it off to save memory. Of course, it is possible many people love it. There are four components in the ViewCube.
The first is the Home button , which lets you store and return to a bookmarked view that you have set by right-clicking on the Home button. The second component of the ViewCube is the cube itself. You can click on its faces, on its edges, and on its corners.
The third component is the Tumble tool that appears if you are viewing the face of the cube, which rolls the camera 90 degrees at a time when clicked. The fourth component is the Axial Orbit tool shaped like a circular compass under the cube, which lets you spin the scene.
It only allows one degree of freedom, unlike Orbit mode. If you like the ViewCube but don't like the compass under it, you can turn the Compass display off in its configuration. The following steps walk you through the use of the ViewCube in order to familiarize yourself with its settings, so you can decide which to opt for. There is a checkbox labeled Show the ViewCube , which you can turn off if you don't like the ViewCube.
If you do like it, but want to work a little more efficiently, click the radio button Only in Active View. You can only use the ViewCube in the view you are currently in, so it saves a little memory to not have four of them spinning around at once. As shown in the preceding screenshot, you can diminish or increase the ViewCube size to taste. The left-hand side example is set to tiny, which is usable but problematic because the labels aren't visible, and the normal size is on the right.
The large size is simply massive, and this is a case where small is probably better. No doubt the default size is too distracting to trouble with. You can also adjust how visible it is using Inactive Opacity in the same section. In the viewport configuration options for the ViewCube, it is definitely a good idea to check the Snap to Closest View checkbox, to help keep the regular viewing angles lined up. Clicking Fit-to-View on View Change means that whenever you change the camera using the ViewCube, you'll be zooming to the scene extents, which is probably not desirable unless you are editing only one model.
It definitely speeds up your work flow if you turn off Use Animated Transitions options when Switching Views. The transition is snappy, and you won't waste time waiting for the camera to animate through its turn. Having the Keep Scene Upright checkbox checked is a good idea, just for stability in the view. The Steering Wheel is an interesting but slightly twitchy tool introduced to 3ds Max in an attempt to provide game-like navigation, where you can fly or drive through the scene.
New users, who will get used to this tool, will probably get a lot out of it, but users already familiar with the classic navigation methods already discussed will probably avoid it. Strangely, I like it when I remember to use it, but that is only in cases when I have to explain how viewport navigation can work.
Still, there are a few features that are outstanding when using the Steering Wheel, in particular the Rewind and Walk tools. The reason is the hotkey is set in the context of the Steering Wheel group, not the main UI group. The reliable way to activate the Steering Wheel is to go to the Views menu and choose Steering Wheels Toggle Steering Wheel or choose one of the different modes it offers there.
It is also possible to assign Toggle Steering Wheel as an entry in the Quads menu for speedy access. In the following example, we will open the Steering Wheel and explore the methods it offers for scene navigation. We'll use this scene to drive around using the Steering Wheel to compare how it feels in comparison to the regular navigation tools. For a scene like this, which is surrounded on four sides by walls, the Steering Wheel actually responds very nicely.
The slight lag in getting it started is the only drawback. There are four types of steering wheels. The default is the Full Navigation Wheel. The others are streamlined derivations of it. All of these can be accessed from the down arrow icon on the lower corner of the Steering Wheel, shown in the following screenshot:. The Look command allows you to orbit around the camera's location, a lot like the 'look around' control in many 3D games.
Try looking around the scene, and notice how it differs from the Orbit command , which turns around a pivot. After you have looked around, try using the Rewind command. This will present you with a filmstrip of prior views that you can slide along to choose among them. The following screenshot shows the Look control highlighted.
Each section of the wheel will be highlighted green, and then when you drag the cursor, the camera will act accordingly. A tool tip appears underneath the Look Tool label, and a cursor replaces the wheel when it's being used. When you are using the Steering Wheel's Orbit tool, a green pivot displays, and it is around this that the camera turns. This can be moved by pressing Orbit while holding Ctrl.
Once you have moved the cursor where you want the pivot to be, as shown in the following screenshot, releasing it will allow you to orbit around the new pivot. If you have set a Home bookmark from the right-click menu of the ViewCube's Home icon , you can choose the Go Home option from the Steering Wheel's menu too, shown in the following screenshot:. There are several viewport display modes that can be accessed by the label in each viewport, shown in the following screenshot:.
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